First put forward thriugh National Education Policy – 1987


  • multidimensional crisis : poverty + availability + accessbility
  • poor learning outcome
  • high drop out rate
  • exclusion :

Right to education act (RTE)

It offers fundamental right to formal primary education in the recognised school from 6-14 years of age


  • set standards
  • enhanced pupil teacher ratioo
  • no of working days fixed
  • curriculam standards
  • teachers attendaence
  • no detention policy
  • no corporal punishment
  • 25% reservation in private schools for economically backward sections
  • mandates every child an accessibility to school within 1 km


  • large increase in enrollment ratio
  • reduced childlabour to a large extent
  • reduced gender disparity
  • made education accessible to backward sections of the society
  • constitutional obligation to the states


  • no detention policy implies no motivation to study
  • poor learning outcomes
  • non compliance of RTE standars
  • many small schools shut down

Govt schemes

1)Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan

2)Mid day meal scheme







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