Foreign Policy – continue

“We shall take full part in international conferences as a free nation with our own policy and not merely as a satellite of another nation.” – J Nehru

Non Alignment Movement (NAM)

The basic premise of the NAM revolves round 4Ds viz,

  • Decolonisation
  • Development
  • Detente and
  • Disarmament

The struggle for world peace, anti colonialism -and positive intervention to influence world events for the extension of the areas of peace and freedom are essential components of the concept of non-alignment

Achievements of NAM

  • It initiated an active international struggle for global peace at height of cold war and militarism.
  • NAM had greater acceptance among the newly emerging independent nations, so it prevented bipolarisation of world to great extent.
  • Different colonized countries demand for right of self determination and end of all kinds of neo-colonialism.
  • NAM had its consistent support for strengthening the United Nations Organisation.
  • The countries campaigned for general recognition for a New International Economic Order {NIEO} based on political and economic equality.

NAM Movement and India

Nehru kept the West open for trade and aid, while on the other hand, avoided alienating the two communist powers in India’s immediate neighbourhood,, China and the Soviet Union. By adopting a policy to be friendly to all, Nehru hoped to receive critical necessary foreign aid at that time.

India was fairly successful in receiving aid from both the blocks; and neither took India as a threat .  However, India found herself moving closer and closer to the Soviet Union. Despite its policy of Non-alignment, India could not keep herself non-aligned practically as it moved closer to USSR and became its ally.

But India was forced to look beyond NAM bacause of condition of economy and conflict with neighbouring countries (Pakistan and China )

However, the biggest failure of this policy was the India’s failure to deal with China in 1962…Also India had to face isolation from US in Pakistan issue,,,

To sum up, India was fairly successful in receiving aid from both the blocks; and neither took India as a threat.

Is NAM relevent now ?

Points for not relevence

  • End of cold war and emergence of new world order and global powers : eg – Emergence of China
  • Vague ideas : 
  • Members have not followed : eg – Issue of nuclear disarmament violation by India, 1971 treaty with USSR, LEMOA with US etc
  • Raising importance of other institutions such as UNO, G20 etc

Points for relevance of NAM

  • New cold war scenario – Trade war like situtations between US and Russia & US and China
  • Neo Colonialism – China’s influence in Africa
  • Neo imperialism – MNC controlls political parties 
  • For nuclear disarmament 
  • Evolving challenges – human rights violation, climata change etc



In the post-cold war period, the NAM has become almost defunct as most of its foundational ideologies such as national independence,territorial integrity, and the struggle against colonialism and imperialism have become irrelevant after end of colonisation.

Despite, NAM had tried to remain relevant by emphasising on multilateralism, equality, and mutual non-aggression in attempting to become a stronger voice for the global South {South-South Cooperation}.

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