POVERTY IN INDIA
Poverty is a significant issue in India,
From late 19th century through early 20th century, under British colonial rule, poverty in India intensified, peaking in the 1920s.Famines and diseases killed millions each time.After India gained its independence in 1947, mass deaths from famines were prevented. Rapid economic growth since 1991, has led to sharp reductions in extreme poverties in India.However, those above poverty line live a fragile economic life.
As per the methodology of the Suresh Tendulkar Committee report(Rs 27/day in rural and Rs 33/day in urban for poverty measurement), the population below the poverty line in India in 2009-2010 was 354 million (29.6% of the population) and that in 2011-2012 was 269 million (21.9% of the population).
The Rangarajan Committee( Rs 32/day in rural and Rs 47/day in urban) said in 2014 that the population below the poverty line in 2009-2010 was 454 million (38.2% of the population) and that in 2011-2012 was 363 million (29.5% of the population).D
The Asia Development Bank estimates India’s population to be at 1.28 billion with an average growth rate, from 2010-2015, at 1.3%. In 2014, 49.9% of the population aged 15 years and above were employed. However, there are still 21.9% of the population who live below the national poverty line.
From November 2017, the World Bank started reporting poverty rates for all countries using two new international poverty lines: a “lower middle-income” line set at $3.20 per day and an “upper middle-income” line set at $5.50 per day. India falls in the lower middle-income category. Using the $3.20 per day poverty line, the percentage of the population living in poverty in India was 60% (2011). This means that 763 million people in India were living below this poverty line in 2011.
CAUSES OF POVERTY ???
- Social : casteism,, no mobility in employment
- Population : one size fits all
- Lack of literacy, health and productivity
- Economic : small landholding – still posses subsistence farming….
- Political : lack of political will, colonial legacy
VICIOUS CYCLE OF POVERTY
Low income – > Low purchase power ->Low productivity -> Low investment ->Decrease in economic growth