Indus River System
Fig : Indus River
- The Indus basin extends over China (Tibet), India, Afghanistan and Pakistan .
- It drains an area of 11,65,500 Sq.km.
- In India, the basin spreads over states of Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Haryana and Union Territory of Chandigarh
- Total area in India is 3,21,289 Sq.km which is nearly 9.8% of the total geographical area.
The basin is bounded by the
-Himalayas on the east,
-Karakoram And Haramosh ranges on the north,
-Sulaiman and Kirthar ranges on the west,
-Arabian Sea on the south.
- The Indus River rises from the lofty mountains of Himalayas around Mansarovar Lake in Tibet at an elevation of 5,182 m.
- Its principal tributaries in India are the Jhelum, the Chenab, the Ravi, the Beas and the Satluj, all joining from left.
- The major part of basin is covered with agricultural land accounting to 35.8% of the total area and 1.85% of the basin is covered by water bodies.
Indus water Treaty
- The water resource development in the Indus basin is governed by the various provision of the Indus water treaty, 1960.
- According to this treaty the water of the Ravi, the Beas and the Satluj shall be available for the unrestricted use by India.
- India has also been permitted to make domestic use, non-consumptive use, uses for runoff the river Hydroelectric plants and specified agricultural use from the Indus, the Jhelum and the Chenab.
River Description ( See Map While Reading this )
Fig : Indus River Map
- The origin of the river is located in Tibet; it starts at the meeting point of the Sengge and Gar rivers that sap the Gangdise Shan and Nganglong Kangri mountain ranges.
- The river subsequently runs to the northwest via Baltistan and Ladakh into Gilgit, immediately south to the Karakoram Mountain range.
- The Shyok, Gilgit and Shigar rivers transport icy waters into the major river.
- Then the river slowly turns toward the south, emerging from the hills between Rawalpindi and Peshawar.
- The river leaves behind enormous canyons with depths of 4,500-5,200 meters in the vicinity of the Nanga Parbat formation.
- The Indus River runs rapidly through Hazara and is barraged at the Tarbela Reservoir.
- The Kabul River meets the river close to Attock.
- The rest of its itinerary to the sea is in the Punjab and Sindh basins and the river gets sluggish and extremely plaited.
- The Panjnad River meets it at Mithankot. Ahead of this meeting point, the Indus, once upon a time, was called Satnad River , as the river was at the moment transporting the waters of Kabul River, the five Punjab rivers, and the Indus River.
- Going across Jamshoro, it finishes its itinerary in a big delta located to the east of Thatta. Cotton, wheat, and sugarcane are the major agricultural produces of this area.
- Zanskar River
- Suru River
- Soan River
- Jhelum River
- Chenab River
- Ravi River
- Beas River
- Sutlej River
- Panjnad River
- Ghaggar- Hakra River
- Shyok River
- Hunza River
- Gilgit River
- Swat River
- Kunar River
- Kabul River
- Kurram River
- Gomal River
- Shob River
Fig : Confluence of Zanskar and Indus
- This river forms through confluence of two small rivers.Doda River or stod river and Tsarap river confluence together to form Zanskar river.
- It runs through Ladakh Plateau .
- It joins Indus in Ladakh .
- It flows through Kargil .
- This river originates from Panzella Glacier near Kargil..
- This river flows near to Doda River or stod river .
- It flows through Nun Kun Mountain.
3.Soan River .
It flows through pakistan.
- It is the western most of the five rivers of Punjab region.
- It passes through kashmir valley.
- It is a tributary of Chenab river.
- It originates in the Verinag Spring located at the foot of Pir Panjal in the kashmir Valley.
- It flows through Srinagar and Wular Lake.
Fig : Wular Lake
- Wular is the one of the largest fresh water lake in India.
- Wular Lake is formed due to tectonic activity.
- Wular Lake is one of the Ramsar Wetland site.
- Tulbul project is the navigation project at Wular Lake.
- The larget tributary of Jhelum River is Neelum river.
- It joins with Chenab in Pakistan.
- Neelum or Kishanganga river mergers with Jhelum in Pakistan .
- Kishanganga river originates from Krishansar lake in Jammu and Kashmir
- It flows through Jammu ,Punjab and Then to Pakistan .
- It Originates from Baralacha la Pass in the state of Himachal Pradesh.
- Kala Nag is one of the tributary of Chenab river.
- It rises in the Bara Bhangal in the state of Himachal Pradesh.
- Flowing eastward from its origin,it is turned by Pir Panjal and Dhauladhar Ranges and forms a triangular zone.
- It Originates on the southern face of Rohtang pass in the state of Himachal Pradesh.
- It joins with Satluj river in Punjab.
- On many occasions, the Sutlej is called as the Red River.
- The river is the easternmost tributary of the Indus River.
- The origin of the Sutlej River is located close to Lake Rakhastal in Tibet in the vicinity of the Kailash Mountain Range.
- The Sutlej River usually runs according to a west to southwest itinerary moving into India via the Shipki La Pass located in Himachal Pradesh.
- Ropar wetland is located on the satluj river basin.
- It is formed by successive confluence of five rivers namely Jhelum,Chenab,Ravi ,Beas and Satluj.
- Jhelum and Ravi join Chenab ,Beas join Satluj,Then satluj and Chenab join to form Panjnad.
10.Ghaggar -Hakra river
- It is an intermittent river in India and Pakistan that flows only during the monsoon season.
- It starts from Shivalik Hills in the state of Himachal Pradesh .
- The river is known as Ghaggar before ottu Barrage and as the Hakra downstream of the Barrage.
- It Originates at the Rimo Glacier in the tongue of Siachen Glacier.
- It flows through Ladakh and enters Gilgit Baltistan area .
- It widens it length when it joins with Nubra River.
- Nubra also originates from Siachen Glacier.
- Shyok and Nubra valley is situated in the Ladakh..
- Khardung La on the Ladakh range lies north of leh and is the gateway to the Shyok and Nubra Valleys.
Fig : Hunza Valley
It cuts through Karakoram range and flows through pakistan .
- It starts from Shandur lake.
- It flows through Gilgit .
Swat ,Kunar ,Kabul ,Kurram,Gomal and Zhob are the rivers that flows in Pakistan.
Dams in Indus river.
Fig : Bhakra Dam
- Baglihar Dam – Chenab River- Jammu and Kashmir
- Baira Siul Dam – Baira/ Ravi River – Himachal Pradesh
- Bassi Dam – Ravi River – Himachal Pradesh
- Bhakra Dam – Satluj – Himachal Pradesh
- Chamera Dam – Ravi River – Himachal Pradesh
- Chohal Dam – Chohal River – Punjab
- Damsal Dam – Damsal river – Punjab
- Dholbaha Dam – Dholbaha Khad river – Punjab
- Dulhasti Dam – Chenab River – Jammu and Kashmir
- Jainti Dam – Punjab
- Janauri Dam – Punjab
- Karchham Wangtoo Dam – Ravi River – Himachal Pradesh
- Kishanganga Dam – Kishanganga river – Jammu and Kashmir
- Kol Dam – Satluj River – Himachal Pradesh
- Largi Dam – Beas River – Himachal Pradesh
- Mali Dam – Punjab
- Malana Dam – Ravi River – Himachal Pradesh
- Mirzapur Dam – Punjab
- Nathpa Jhakri Dam – Satluj River – Himachal Pradesh .
- Nimoo Bazgo River – Indus River – Jammu and Kashmir
- Pakal Dul Dam – Marusudar river – Jammu and Kashmir
- Pandoh Dam – Beas River – Himachal Pradesh
- Parbati Dam – Himachal Pradesh
- Patiari Dam – Punjab
- Pong Dam – Beas River – Himachal Pradesh
- Ranjit Sagar Dam – Ravi River – Punjab
- Dalal Dam – Chenab River – Jammu and Kashmir
- Saleran Dam – Punjab.
- Shahpur Kandi Dam – Ravi River – Punjab
- Uri Dam – Jhelum River – Jammu and Kashmir