India’s relationship with its neighbourhood are multidimensional and interactive. Shared civilisational heritage is reflected through cultural activitie
History of Relationship
1951 : ordial relationship
1962 : Military coup and and regime in Myanmar . During this time India was not ready to engage with Myanmar
1988 : Massive student led protest againt military rule. The movement was supported this movement (But this protest in Myanmar was a failure )India began engagement through diplomatic engagement with Military rule..That is this shift was from Idealism to Pragmatism
2015 : Election in Myanmar. National league of Democracy.
- Democratic transition of Myanmar..This was not complete .Around 25% seat in Parliament reserved for military.Military still controls the defence and home affairs
During 1962 Myanmar drifted towards China
Why Myanmar ?
-> Free movement regime (FMR) :
- A unique mechanism in place between India and Myanmar border which permits people to move along border without Visa..
- It is the free movement along both borders for 16 km on either side
- The FMR help to continue the age old ties of tribes..But it has been a breeding ground for extremism
2)Golden Triangle : Engagement between Myanmar, Laos and Thailand to tackle drug trafficking..
3)Mynmar is the only ASIAN member which shares border with India. Therefore has a critical role for connectivity between India and South East Asia
4) Mynmar also important for India’s success in Multilateral diplomacy such as MEKONG GANGA COOPERATION (MGC), BIMSTEC etc
5)Energy Security : GAIL and OVL(ONGC Videsh Lmited) investments in Mynmar
6) Mynmar is also important for minerals – Shah Pateau
* Border trade agreement : To increase the trade between India and Mynmar
*Both GAIL and OVL(ONGC Videsh Lmited) investments in Mynmar
*Power sharing agreement
*Line of Credit and ITEC (Indian Techno Economic Cooperation) : Industrial training, capacity building, skill development , entrepreneurship development etc
*India-Myanmar –Thailand trilateral highway and India plans to extent this highway to Vietnam inder MGC
-> It extends from Moreh in India to Mae Sot in Thailand via Mandalay, Myanmar
*Kaladan Mulitinodel Project :
The project will connect the seaport of Kolkata with Sittwe seaport in Myanmar by sea; it will then link Sittwe seaport to Lashio in Myanmar via Kaladan river boat route & then from Lashio on to Mizoram in India by road transport.
- Will reduce distance from Kolkata to Mizoram by approximately 1000 km and cut travelling time to 3-4 days for transport of goods.
- Necessary in case of any conflict with China as present route i.e. chicken neck could be blocked by China in conflict situation.
- The access to the sea that the project provides its Northeastern states could boost their economies.
- It would strengthen India’s trade and transport links with Southeast Asia.
- It will be instrumental for “act-east policy”
*5B : Budhism, Bollywood, Bharathanatyam, Barmatek and Business