population – 8% 0f India
Distinctive cultures and traditions
- land deorivetion and alienation : no legal mechanism, therefore they are exploited by clan ownership =>no private sytematic failure, lack of accessibility to legal mechanism
- Social isolation due to geographical isolation leads to poor education and health indicators
- voluntary exclusion : fear of losing their culture, negative attitude towards development
- Failure of government interventions : failed to address land use
->Article 15(4) : discrimination
->Article 17 : Untouchability
->Article 23 : Forced Labour
->Article 46 : Social justice to SC/ST
->Article 330 : Reservation in Loksabha
->Article 338(A) : National coomission for ST
#Provision of atrocities against SC/ST Act, 1989
Responsibility of state government to ensure rights and protection of ST
special court to try
special procedure appointed by state govt
Punishments agaisnt non-SC and ST officers who commit crimes
#PESA [Panchayath Extention to Scheduled Areas] Act , 1996
- Gramsabha were made autonomous institutions power plus complete authority
- state government has to demarcate areas falling under PESA
#Forests Rights Act , 2006
weapon of democracy in the forest
gives legal land right(recognition of ownership of land) and livelihood rights(collection , utilisation, and selling of minor forest produce)
challenges of forest rights act
- Act not yet rolled out in majority of states
- Act orihinally aims at bringing harmony between development and forest protection friendship
- FRA recognises tribes and no bodyelse
National Commission for ST
The National Commission for Scheduled Tribes (NCST) was established by amending Article 338 and inserting a new Article 338A in the Constitution through the Constitution (89th Amendment) Act, 2003. By this amendment, the erstwhile National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes was replaced by two separate Commissions namely- (i) the National Commission for Scheduled Castes (NCSC), and (ii) the National Commission for Scheduled Tribes (NCST) w.e.f. 19 February, 2004.
1)Vanbandhu Kalyan Yojana, 2014
The Government of India, Ministry of Tribal Affairs has launched Vanbandhu Kalyan Yojana (VKY) for welfare of Tribals. VKY aims at creating enabling environment for need based and outcome oriented holistic development of the tribal people. This process envisages to ensure that all the intended benefits of goods and services under various programmes/schemes of Central as well as State Governments actually reach the target groups by convergence of resources through appropriate institutional mechanism.
It covers all tribal people and all areas with tribal population across the country.
- Improving the quality of life in tribal areas
- Improving the quality of education
- Qualitative and sustainable employment for tribal families
- Bridging infrastructure gaps with focus on quality
- Protection of tribal culture and heritage
Component of VKY
- Qualitative & Sustainable Employment.
- Quality Education & Higher Education.
- Accelerated Economic Development of tribal areas.
- Health for all.
- Housing for all.
- Safe Drinking Water for all at doorsteps.
- Irrigation facilities suited to the terrain.
- All Weather Roads with connectivity to the nearby town/cities.
- Universal Availability of Electricity.
- Urban Development.
- Robust institutional mechanism. (ITDAs/ITDPs)
- Promotion and conservation of Tribal Cultural Heritage
- Promotion of Sports in Tribal Areas.
- Strengthening of institutions meant for delivery of goods and services with adequate administrative, technical and financial powers such as Tribal Welfare Departments as nodal Department, Integrated Tribal Development Agency (ITDA), Integrated Tribal Development Projects (ITDPs) and creation of new ones where they do not exist etc.
- Convergence of scattered resources and activities being undertaken under various components.
Minor Forest Produce
Minor Forest Produce (MFP) is more often than not determined by the traders instead of self-sustained process of demand and supply. Implementing a scheme to ensure that such forest dwellers are not deprived of their due. Under the scheme maximum selling price for MFP is being implemented in schedule V States initially. Web based portal has also been developed which indicate current price of MFPs on real time basis across different mandis of the States.
12 MFP products have been included in the programme namely
- Tendu Leave
- Mahuwa Seeds
- Sal Leaf
- Sal Seed
- Wild Honey
- Gums (Gum Karaya) and
->Exist in 22 states
->Create plan for development of tribes
->Fund is diversible and non lapsable
V Xaxa Committee – 2013-14
-set up to study the socio economic and health status of tribes.
Also suggest policy initiations for their upliftment
1)Increae in restrictions around tribes hamlets for land aquisition
2)Giving mining rights to tribal cooperation eg : AP ,on pilot basis
3)Provide unutilised govt land for rehabilitation of landless tribes
4)Have minimum development activities near high density tribal settlements
5)Return exuasted mixes to tribes
6)Creation of awareness amoung gramsabha about their power and land rights system
7)Setup a juditial commissions to enquire about naxal and maoist issue tribal areas