Non- cooperation Movement (1920-1922)
- Mahatma Gandhi announced his plan to begin Non- cooperation with the government as a sequel to the Rowlatt Act, Jallianwala Bagh massacre and the Khilafat movement.
- It was approved by the Indian national congress at the Nagpur session in December, 1920.
The programmes of the non- cooperation movement were
- Surrender of titles and honorary positions.
- Resignation of membership from the local bodies.
- Boycott of elections held under the provisions of the 1919 Act.
- Boycott of government functions.
- Boycott of courts, government schools and colleges.
- Boycott of foreign goods.
- Establishment of national schools, colleges and private panchayat courts.
- Popularizing swadeshi goods and khadi.
- The movement began with Mahatma Gandhi renouncing the titles, which were given by the British.
- Other leaders and influential persons also followed him by surrendering their honorary posts and titles.
- Students came out of the government educational institutions.
- National schools such as the Kashi Vidyapeeth, the Bihar Vidyapeeth and the Jamia Millia Islamia were set up.
- All the prominent leaders of the country gave up their lucrative legal practice.
- Legislatures were boycotted.
- No leader of the congress came forward to contest the elections for the legislatures.
- In 1921, mass demonstrations were held against the Prince of Wales during his tour of India.
- The government resorted to strong measures of repression.
- Many leaders were arrested.
- The congress and the Khalifat committees wre proclaimed as illegal.
- At several places, bonfires of foreign clothes were organized.
- The message of Swadeshi spread everywhere.
- Most of the households took to weaving cloths with the help of charkhas.
- But the whole movement was abruptly called off on 11th February 1922 by Gandhi following the Chauri Chaura incident in the Gorakpur district of U.P.
- Earlier on 5th February an angry mob set fire to the police station at Churi Chaura and twenty two policemen were burnt to death.
- Many top leaders of the country were stunned at this sudden suspension of the non- cooperation movement.
- Mahatma Gandhi was arrested on 10 March 1922.
Significance of the non- cooperation movement
- It was the real mass movement with the participants of different sections of Indian society such as peasants, workers, students, teachers and women.
- It witnesses the spread of nationalism to the remote corners of India.
- It also marked the height of Hindu- Muslim unity as a result of the merger of Khilafat movement.
- It demonstrated the willingness and ability of the masses to endure hardships and make sacrifies.