Mountbatten plan (1947)
- On 20 February 1947, Prime Minister Atlee announced in the house of common the definite intention of the British government to transfer power to responsible Indian hands by a date not later than June 1948.
- Thus, to effect the transference of that power Atlee decided to sent Lord Mountbatten as vicerory to India.
- Lord Mountbatten armed with vast powers became India’s Vicerory on 24 Mach 1947.
- The partition of India and the creation of Pakistan appeared inevitable to him.
- After extensive consultation Lord Mountbatten put forth the plan of partition of India on 3 June 1947.
- The congress and the Muslim league ultimately approved the Mountbatten plan.
Indian Independence Act 1947
- The British government accorded formal approval to the Mountbatten plan by enacting the Indian Independence Act on 18 July 1947.
- The salient features of this Act were:
- The partition of the country into India and Pakistan would come into effect from 15 August 1947.
- The British government would transfer all powers to these two Dominions.
- A boundary commission would demarcate the boundaries of the provinces of the Punjab and Bengal.
- The Act provided for the transfer of power to the constituent Assemblies of the two Dominions, which will have full authority to frame their respective constitutions.
- The Radcliff Boundary commission drew the boundary line separating India and Pakistan.
- On 15th August 1947 India, and on the 14th August Pakistan came into existence as two independent states.
- Lord Mountbatten was made the first governor general of Independent India, whereas Mohammad Ali Jinnah became the governor general of Pakistan.
- The most tragic incident occurred on 30 January 1948, when Mahatma Gandhi- the father of the nation on his way to a prayer meeting was assassinated by Nathuram Godse.