India – China Relationship – part 2

Conflict Continues

Indirect Conflict

#China – Pakistan Nexus


  • In all major wars China supported Pakistan


  • China supported Pak in Kashmir issue
  • Pak played a link between China and muslim countries


  • Largest military support of Pak (47% of Chinese arms goes to Pakistan)
  • Joint military exercises and joint projects


  1. China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC):

CPEC is expected to connect Kashgar in Xinjiang in China’s far west with the Port of Gwadar in the province of Baluchistan via a network of highways, railways, and pipelines. This project would allow China to transport energy resources such as petroleum from Middle Eastern countries to China via a land route through Pakistan. China signed 51 MoUs with Pakistan worth $46 billion as part of this project in April 2015. This corridor is an extension of China’s Silk Road initiative. This project will provide economic growth to Pakistan and will help in boosting infrastructure development with the help of China.

Strategic aspect in CPEC

  • Energy security is a key concern for China and oil pipelines through Pakistan would cut about 16,000 kilometers from the distance traveled by goods traded between China and the Middle East. China plans to build oil storage facilities and a refinery at Gwadar Port, with oil transported to its Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region via road and pipeline. This will let it move energy and goods to inland China without going through the Strait of Malacca, which could be blocked by US or India should hostilities break out in the region.
  • This project will lead to development in Western China where tensions are simmering from activities by radical separatists due to closeness with Pakistan and Afghanistan. Ideally, this project would promote growth in Pakistan, weaken the extremists and encourage Pakistan army to support peace efforts in Afghanistan.
  • Implications for India: CPEC will provide China strategic access to the Arabian Seaand enhance its presence in the region. It would enable China to wield much more powerful influence in the Indian Ocean. Once completed, CPEC project would mean that the Chinese presence in entire Pakistan including Pakistan Occupied Kashmir becomes all pervasive and powerful. The route of CPEC passes through PoK and makes China an indirect stakeholder in Kashmir conflict between India and Pakistan

#South China Sea issue

Why SCS is important ?

  • Closeness to Malacca Strait
  • SCS provides opening to Indian Ocean Region
  • Oil reserves in SCS
  • Poly Metallic Nodules (PMN ) : also called manganese nodules, are rock concretions on the sea bottom formed of concentric layers of iron and manganese hydroxides around a core. As nodules can be found in vast quantities, and contain valuable metals, deposits have been identified as having economic interest.

India’s Stand on SCS issue

  • South China Sea issue India supports rules-based security architecture
  • India has been supporting freedom of navigation and access to resources in the SCS in accordance with principle of international law, including the 1982 UN Convention on Law of the Sea. 

Why India took such a stand ?

  • Strategic importance of SCS
  • India wanted to reduce influence of China in Indian Ocean
  • India always considered SCS as litmus test for International Maritime Law. In the aftermath of PCA (Permanent Court of Arbitration) verdict New Delhi feels that it should take a principal stand on issues of freedom of Navigation and Territorial disputes

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *